central dogma of biology states that “the coded genetic information hard-wired into DNA is transcribed into individual transportable cassettes, composed of messenger RNA (mRNA); each mRNA cassette contains the program for synthesis of a particular protein (or small number of proteins).”
Transcription of DNA to RNA to protein: This dogma forms the backbone of molecular biology and is represented by four major stages.
1. The DNA replicates its information in a process that involves many enzymes: replication.
2. The DNA codes for the production of messenger RNA (mRNA) during transcription.
3. In eukaryotic cells, the mRNA is processed (essentially by splicing) and migrates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
4. Messenger RNA carries coded information to ribosomes. The ribosomes “read” this information and use it for protein synthesis. This process is called translation.
Proteins do not code for the production of protein, RNA or DNA.
They are involved in almost all biological activities, structural or enzymatic.